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ALEXANDERSON, ERNST - 1878 -1975
is the "A" in "Smart dAaf Boys"
The inventors that put the Pizzazz in Radio Wave. (Get free copies of Alexanderson - U.S. Wireless Acci Patents)

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FEATURE STORY
• 02. TimeLine
03. Patent Notes
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The Smart-Daaf Boys - Main
StubblefieldMarconiAmbrose FlemingReginald FessendenTesla
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Ernst Fredrik Werner Alexanderson
b: Jan. 25, 1878 - d: May 14, 1975

Excerpts found on this page are from: "Nathan B. Stubblefield, the Radio Boy" & "The SMART-DAAF BOYS"™©1992 and "Disappointments Are Great, Follow the Money, The Internet - D-diaries - ©2006 - By Troy and Josie Cory-Stubblefield • ISBN 1-883644-34-8 • Library of Congress Catalog # TX 5-967-411

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Alexanderson - 1878 -1975 is given credit as the developer of the General Electric, AC Generator or Alexanderson Alternator. He helped make Fessenden's - 1906 spark generated voice broadcast successful. Radio Patent Information & Public Demonstrations
---- Ernst Fredrik Werner Alexanderson was born in the village of Upsala, Sweden, on Jan. 25, 1878. He was 97 when he died on May 14, 1975, at his home in Schenectady, N.Y. Dr. Alexanderson was the son of Professor A.M. Alexanderson, a judge and professor of Greek, then on the faculty of Upsala University.. Early interest was expressed in electrical engineering, stimulated by a year of technical work at the University of Lund, in 1896. He graduated in 1900 as an electrical-mechanical engineer from the Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm following a year of postgraduate work at the Technical University in Berlin Germany. He emigrated to the U.S. in 1902 and spent much of his life working for the General Electric company. - Continue For More

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1. Feature (Excerpt from)  "The SMART-DAAF BOYS"™
• • Continued from above - An electrical engineer and television pioneer , he developed a high-frequency alternator (a device that converts direct current into alternating current) capable of producing continuous radio waves and thereby revolutionized radio communication. He produced inventions in such fields as railway electrification, motors and power transmissions, telephone relays, and electric ship propulsion, in addition to his pioneer work in radio and television.

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•• In the early days of wireless telephony and telegraphy, there were no packets of instant coffee and Creamora laying around, where all you had to do was add hot water.
••• As for radio, television, and the terms antenna and radio AC alternators, the words didn't even exist when Marconi and Stubblefield started their wireless operations. In fact, to make telephony talk in a big way, it took over eighteen years, starting in 1892, just to get the government to patent the first Wireless Telephone™. It took another 90 years, in 1996 -- before the first group of Wireless Telephone™ frequencies were sold to the general public, by the FCC for billions of dollars. CLICK TO SEE 1907 AUTO PATENT DRAWING.
Alexanderson had been employed at General Electric for only a short period of time, when GE received the order from Canadian-born professor and researcher Reginald Fessenden in 1904. The Tesla styled generator, which patent was to expire in 1906, was converted into an AC alternating generator with 1000 times higher frequency than any in existence at that time.
In the summer of 1906 Dr. Alexanderson presented a 50 kHz alternator that was installed in Fessenden's radio station in Brant Rock, Massachusetts. By fall it's output had been improved to 500 watts and 75 kHz. On Christmas Eve, 1906, Fessenden broadcast the first long distance voice and music broadcast with music and talk, playing the violin and reading the gospel himself.
••• The big difference in the Alexanderson/Fessenden 1906 RF broadcast, and the January, 1902, Stubbblefield ship-to-shore and land-line voice/music broadcasts were; the NBS wireless demonstration were open to the general public, and his telephony system used batteries for power, like today's cell phones. FOR MORE SEE STUBBLEFIELD and TimeLine.
••• The Alexanderson / Fessenen Wireless Telephony transmission was power by a generator, and was reportedly heard by a GE tech group as far away as the Caribbean Sea.
••• The NBS wireless RF transmitter/receivers antenna system used in the NBS broadcasts, were stationed two miles apart. The broadcasts were extented to a 125 mile radius by the use of land-line connections, relaying the wireless voice broadcast to Philadelphia listeners, like in today's WiFi hot-spot technology.
The Steinmetz Papers on Alternating Current Phenomena
••• Encouraged by his father who was a professor of language, Dr. Ernst Alexanderson learned English, French, and Latin in addition to his native Swedish. Thus, he was able to read a copy of Dr. Charles P. Steinmetz's paper on Alternating Current Phenomena while attending the Technical University in Berlin.
••• He was so impressed that he decided to move to America and seek work with Dr. Steinmetz. He arrived in the U.S. in 1902, about the same time Marconi was financing Fleming to produce a stable, dependable coherer device in which Marconi could introduced to his grounded earth induction coil antenna. Each coil had varied electrical characteristics for each transmitting and receiving antennas, thereby enabling him to tuning them to to each other.
•••This made it possible for a great number of stations to use the "air" at one time without interference. The Fleming Electron Tubel Device, the Oscillation Valve was patented in 1904, as an Telegraphy device. MORE AMBROSE STORY.
•••Alexanderson first assignment a member of the GE engineering staff in l904, was designing generators under Dr. Steinmetz.
••• It was in this year that Professor Fessenden, contracted G.E. to design and build a high frequency machine that would operate at high speeds and provide continuous wave transmissions. The project was turned over to Alexanderson. This was a two kilowatt, 100,000 cycle machine.
••• Marconi heard about the News Of The Success of the new Alexanderson Alternator, in 1904. Shortly after the Alexanderson' demonstration, Marconi arranged for a 50 kilowatt installation to be made at the New Brunswick, N.J., his Marconi transatlantic station.
••• Not content with his development, he further perfected the unit to provide 200 kilowatts of power. This powerful transmitter was also installed at New Brunswick and was used by President Wilson in the transmittal of messages to the warring countries in Europe, since the cables had been cut.
••• The historical test came on October 20, 1918, when President Wilson used this station to send the Peace ultimatum which brought the war to a close. In 1919, Marconi tried to buy the exclusive world rights to the Alexanderson transmitter, but President Wilson had a deep desire to keep the inventions ''American." The end result was the formation of the Radio Corporation of America.

He designed the Alexanderson alternator, a high-frequency generator for longwave transmissions, which made modulated (voice) radio broadcasts practical. The only surviving transmitter in a working state is at the Grimeton radio station outside Varberg, Sweden. It is a prime example of pre-electronic radio technology and was added to UNESCO's World heritage list in 2004.

---- Marconi soon discovered that if all Hertz's had to do is groud a tuning fork properly, to send a spark of electricity across a room to produce a visible spark, why couldn't a coherer be used. Using the already deviloped coherer in place of a spark gap, Marconi found that by properly grounding the coherer properly, the effect would multiply the distance a thousand times over the stop gap the signal, he was using to send Dit - Dahs.
----He later found out that this was because a coherer required less than one thousandth of the energy necessary to produce a visible spark.
---- Marconi, even as a Nobel Peace Prize winner, said, "he never claimed to be a scientist." He always stated his ability lay in combining certain facts discovered and developed by others. Marconi's first transmitter consisted of an elevated antenna with the spark gap located at its lower end, the end itself was solidly connected to the earth. His receiving antenna carefully duplicated the transmitting antenna with the coherer positioned where the spark gap was. His first efforts succeeded in transmitting a signal three-fourths of a mile across his father's estate.
02 / The Smart Daaf Boys Timeline / TIMELINE - ERNST ALEXANDERSON

• 1878 - Ernst Alexanderson was born in Upsala, Sweden, on Jan. 25, 1878.
• 1896 -
Alexanderson devoted one year of technical work at the University of Lund.
• 1900 - Alexanderson Graduated as an electrical-mechanical engineer from the Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm
• 1901 -
Alexanderson spent a year of postgraduate work at the Technical University (Technische Hochschule in Berlin - Charlottenburg) Germany. It was in Berlin that Alexanderson read "Alternating Current Phenomena" by Dr. Charles Steinmetz, the mathematics genius at General Electric. The book inspired him so much that he decided to come to the U.S. to meet Steinmetz and seek work with him at General Electric.
•1902 - Alexanderson emigrated to the U.S. and spent much of his life working for the General Electric company.
•1906 - Alexanderson had been employed at General Electric for only a short period of time when GE received an order from Canadian-born professor and researcher Reginald Fessenden for an alternator with 1000 times higher frequency than any in existence at that time. In the summer of 1906 Dr. Alexanderson presented a 50 kHz alternator that was installed in Fessenden's radio station in Brant Rock, Massachusetts. By fall it's output had been improved to 500 watts and 75 kHz. On Christmas Eve, 1906. Before the invention of his alternator, radio was an affair only of dots and dashes transmitted by inefficient crashing spark machines.
• 1909 - PATENT - Alexanderson's 1008577 US Patent Filed "High frequency alternator (100 kHz)," filed April, 1909; issued, November 14, 1911. - CLICK TO VIEW PATENT • 1910 - Alexanderson enrolled in the famous mathematician and electrical engineer Charles Proteus Steinmetz' Consulting Engineering Department, which afforded him still greater opportunities to concentrate on continued work with the alternator.
• 1915 -
Marconi who visited Schenectady in 1915 found Alexanderson's alternator to be superior to his own equipment in the big, newly constructed station. As a result, the Marconi equipment was torn out, and the alternator installed. Via the New Brunswick station, which had finally acquired a 200 kW alternator, and was placed during the war under the command of the US Navy, President Wilson was able to maintain wireless telephone contact with the USA throughout his voyage to the Peace Conference in Versailles, and back.
• 1911 -
PATENT - Alexanderson's 1008577 US Patent Issued "High frequency alternator (100 kHz)," filed April, 1909; issued, November 14, 1911 - CLICK TO VIEW PATENT • 1915 - Marconi, who on his visit to the States in 1915 had desired to buy the exclusive right to sell the alternators on the world market, made a new offer to General Electric in 1919. President Wilson appealed to General Electric not to sell, since he feared that the English would in that event become completely dominant in the field of world communications. Instead, an entirely new corporation was created, the Radio Corporation of America (RCA), for the purpose of marketing the alternators. Alexanderson was brought in as Chief Engineer at the new corporation, and subsequently shared his working time between GE and RCA until 1924, when he returned to working full time at GE.
• 1918 - Alexanderson's alternator was further developed, assuming its final form at the end of the First World War. President Woodrow Wilson's "Fourteen Points" and an exhortation to the Kaiser to abdicate were broadcast by means of the Alexanderson alternator in 1918 in the "Marconi station" in New Brunswick.
• 1924 - Alexanderson on June 5, 1924, the first wireless telegraph picture was transmitted across the Atlantic. This was a handwritten page from a letter from Ernst Alexanderson to his father Professor Alexanderson, in Sweden.
• 1924 -
Alexnderson was elected a member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Engineering Sciences
• 1925 - he became a Knight of the Order of the Northern Star, and, also in that year, a Knight of the Polish order of Polonia Restituta. These are only a few examples of the distinctions he received over the years.
• 1926 - Alexanderson sent the first facsimile transmission to go around the world. Passing through successive relays, the picture was reproduced on machine in the same room as the transmitter after just two minutes.
• 1926 -
PATENT - Alexanderson's 1,723,908 US Patent Filed "Ignition system," (RFI suppressor), Patent filed June, 1926; issued August, 1929. CLICK TO VIEW PATENT
• 1927 - Alexanderson staged the first home reception of television at his own home in Schenectady, New York, using high-frequency neon lamps and a perforated scanning disc. On January 13, 1928, the first television play was transmitted, and the television transmissions from "Alex's lab" at General Electric were received and shown on a screen measuring roughly 2x2 meters with the aid of Alexanderson's new TV projector.
• 1927 -
PATENT - Alexanderson's 1,775,801 US Patent Filed "Radio signaling system" (directional antenna), filed November 1927, issued September 16, 1930. CLICK TO VIEW PATENT
• 1929 - PATENT Alexanderson's 1,723,908 US Patent Issued"Ignition system," (RFI suppressor), Patent filed June, 1926; issued August, 1929. - CLICK TO VIEW PATENT
• 1930 - PATENT - Alexanderson's 1,775,801 US Patent Issued "Radio signaling system" (directional antenna), filed November 1927, issued September 16, 1930 - CLICK TO VIEW PATENT
• 1934 - Alexanderson was elected a member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences.
• 1938 - Alexanderson was awarded an honorary doctorate by the University of Upsala .
As a result of the gradual broadening of its work to cover numerous fields, Alexanderson's Radio Consulting Department was renamed the Consulting Engineering Department in 1928, and in 1933 it became the Consulting Engineering Laboratory. In connection with the reorganization of General Electric in 1945, this laboratory was merged with General Electric's General Engineering Laboratory to form the General Engineering and Consulting Laboratory.
• 1944 - Alexanderson for a while was President of the American Institute of Electrical Engineers, which awarded him its Edison Medal in 1944. Stockholm.
• 1944 - Alexanderson was awarded the Cedergren Medal for his outstanding technical writing in the field of electrical engineering. The medal was first awarded in 1914, to Charles Proteus Steinmetz.
• 1948 - awarded an honorary doctorate by the Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm.
• 1948 - Alexanderson formaly retired from Genera Electric but continued his inventing activities as a private person for a further 20 or so years. During that time he obtained 28 patents in a variety of fields. His last patent he acquired as recently as 1973.
• 1975 - Alexanderson
died on May 14, 1975, at his home in Schenectady, N.Y.
• 1983 -
Alexanderson was honoured posthumously, when he was elected, for his invention of the high-frequency alternator, to join the ranks of distinguished inventors in the National Inventors Hall of Fame. Several of the original Alexanderson Alternators can be found today in the museum set up in Grimeton, Sweden. In 1996, one was turned on during the 80th anniversary celebration. The station worked just it as it did in 1916, and transmitted signals back to the U.S.

03 / PATENTS

During his long period of service with General Electric, and including his years in retirement, he obtained a total of 344 patents, of which 11 private, 34 together with colleagues, and the rest as assignor for General Electric. Each new patent was followed by a "latent patent" (a patent under development) which, when it had been processed and approved, was followed by new patents and latent patents in a long chain over the years. He left practically no aspect of electrical engineering untested. It is thus possible, from his life's work, to sketch the development of electrical engineering from power engineering to the more and more important field of electronics.
An exhaustive list includes all the patents he obtained between the years 1905 and 1973. He produced inventions in such fields as railway electrification, motors and direct-current power transmission, telephone relays,  gun-control systems and electric ship propulsion, in addition to his pioneer work in radio and television. During World War II, he worked on analog computers for use with radar and developed military applications of the amplidyne.
• 1909 -
PATENT - Alexanderson's 1008577 US Patent Filed "High frequency alternator (100 kHz)," filed April, 1909; issued, November 14, 1911. - CLICK TO VIEW PATENT • 1911 - PATENT - Alexanderson's 1008577 US Patent Issued "High frequency alternator (100 kHz)," filed April, 1909; issued, November 14, 1911 - CLICK TO VIEW PATENT • 1926 - PATENT - Alexanderson's 1,723,908 US Patent Filed "Ignition system," (RFI suppressor), Patent filed June, 1926; issued August, 1929. CLICK TO VIEW PATENT
• 1927 - PATENT - Alexanderson's 1,775,801 US Patent Filed "Radio signaling system" (directional antenna), filed November 1927, issued September 16, 1930. CLICK TO VIEW PATENT
• 1929 - PATENT Alexanderson's 1,723,908 US Patent Issued"Ignition system," (RFI suppressor), Patent filed June, 1926; issued August, 1929. - CLICK TO VIEW PATENT
• 1930 - PATENT - Alexanderson's 1,775,801 US Patent Issued "Radio signaling system" (directional antenna), filed November 1927, issued September 16, 1930 - CLICK TO VIEW PATENT

---- MAXWELL'S ETHER THEORY DIES - November, 13, 1931. The one-hundredth anniversary of Clerk Maxwell's birth was marked by the scientific world "digging a grave for the theory of a luminiferous ether," but at the same time honoring Maxwell's mathematical genius.

4. Related Stories / General Electric, Engineer. AC Generator or Alexanderson Alternator Made Fessenden's - 1906 successful. The AC Generator was used as the power source, along with other ancillary technologies utilized by Fessenden during the Christmas Eve demonstration. Alexanderson was with Fessenden at the time of the broadcast, using the spark AC Generator induction system Alexanderson's high-frequency 1906 alternator was capable of putting 700 amperes of high-frequency current into the Fessenden antenna.
TELEVISION
Dr. Alexanderson was also instrumental in the development of television. The first television broadcast in the United States was to his GE Plot home at 1132 Adams Road in 1927.
Over his lifetime, Dr. Alexanderson received 345 patents, the last awarded in 1973 at age 94. The inventor and engineer remained active to an advanced age, working as a consultant to GE and RCA in the 1950s.
Dr. Alexanderson Was a prolific inventer and his inventive genius touched many different fields. Some of his inventions in communication included the magnetic amplifier, the electronic amplifier, the multiple tuned antenna, the anti-static receiving antenna, radio altimeters, television in 1928, and in 1924 the first facsimile across the Atlantic, which included a hand written greeting to his father in Sweden. In other fields such as power and control, he designed single phase motors for railway electrification, used by Pennsylvania R.R. system, worked out a system for regenerative breaking of direct current series motors used on the St. Paul R.R. locomotives. The amplidyne and thyratron motors were among some of the 320 patents issued to him during his 46 years with General Electric Co. (One for every month, give or take a few days).
Dr. Alexanderson retired in 1948 -- but continued as a consultant for another year. He was 97 when he died on May 14, 1975, at his home in Schenectady, N.Y. Dr. Alexanderson was widowed twice, and was survived by his third wife Thyra and son Werner; also three daughters and nine grandchildren.
In 1983, he was inducted into the National Inventors Hall of Fame.

StubblefieldMarconiAmbrose FlemingReginald Fessenden
TeslaDeForestArmstrongAlexanderson
Farnsworth


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