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• 105 - Religion: Today's Puzzle?

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"Keeping the news media honest!"
With: Rev. Earlene Stubblefield, B.Th., D.D.

Was James The Step Brother of Jesus? Click For Answer

Q&A01aBeliefGodWhy? 10e -Why Do You Believe

Q&A01b - Burial Box Bears Inscription of 'James ... Brother of Jesus'

Q&A01c - Discovery Consistent With Bible

Q&A01d IN THEORY - Are archeological findings relevant in matters of faith?

Q&A02a Priest Scandal Could Set History in Motion

Q&A02b THE NATION Billy Graham Apologizes for '72 Remarks

Q&A02c - 911 / Billy Graham / Nixon Recording: Subject: White House - Finally, The Truth on  National TV

Q&A03a China's Next Challenge: Christians and the Microchip

Q&A04b Do You Believe In God? - Survey Measures Thoughts on Religion From Various Wire Reports. In a look at Americans' beliefs, a new survey shows that 44% think the Bible, the Koran and the Book of Mormon express the same spiritual truths.

EXTRA 04IN BRIEF
Survey Measures Thoughts on Religion From Various Wire Reports
In a look at Americans' beliefs, a new survey shows that 44% think the Bible, the Koran and the Book of Mormon express the same spiritual truths.

SPECIAL: Billy Graham / Nixon Recording: Subject: Truth

More at Enoch 02
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The modern day highs and lows of Religion
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01 Feature Stories - Today's Puzzle - Q&A
10e Q&A01a- Why Do You Believe?
•••A new study of what Marx was getting at -- not if there is a God and not whether it makes sense that humans should believe, but simply why humans believe.
•••The study analyzes the results mostly in terms of political divisions. It found that politically conservative Christians described a godless world "as one of incessant conflict and chaos, expressing strong apprehension regarding people's inability to control their impulses and the attendant breakdown of social relationships and societal institutions."
•••Liberal Christians, on the other hand, had a different set of concerns. For them, a world without God would be "barren or lifeless, lacking in color and texture, an empty wasteland that would not sustain them" and in which they would feel lost.
•••All of the respondents generally imagined life without God as "entailing fear, sadness, interpersonal isolation and loss of meaning and hope."
•••The political findings are intriguing, but not nearly as interesting as the way the question and the answers it elicited get at deeper, core issues. It appears that we do believe out of need, but it's not, as Marx suggested, primarily because of material deprivation. Instead, it looks as if faith answers fear, and many different kinds of fear, which we can begin to delineate in some detail.
•••In the end, even these specifics don't intrigue me as much as this fact: Zero-sum arguments about faith and faithlessness just go round and round, generating heat and no light. It's better to return to real knowledge and fundamental questions. Rather than arguing over the existence of God, rather than playing believer-nonbeliever gotcha, we learn a whole lot more if we just keep asking ourselves -- in as many new ways as possible -- why it is that so many of us feel compelled to pray.
•••The study, by psychology professor Dan P. McAdams and researcher Michelle Albaugh, was aimed at finding out about the religious sources of political leanings. They interviewed 128 devout Christians in and around Chicago, and they avoided the usual questions of "How do you know God exists" or even "Why do you believe?" Instead, they asked their subjects to describe what their lives and the world would be like if they did not have faith. In other words, what would the world be like if Christopher Hitchens were right and there were no God? - CLICK FOR MORE BIBLICAL STUDIES @#Q&A04b.

Q&A01b - Burial Box Bears Inscription of 'James ... Brother of Jesus'
The finding could be the earliest archeological evidence of the of the biblical figure.
However, scholars say they may never know for sure.
••• October 22, 2002 -- A French scholar has discovered what may be the earliest archeological evidence of Jesus a 1,940-year-old limestone burial box bearing the inscription "James, son of Joseph, brother of Jesus
••• The 20-inch-long box for holding the bones
of the dead, known as an ossuary, dates from AD 63 and all evidence suggests that it is genuine and not a forgery, said paleographer André Lemaire of the Sorbonne University in Paris, who discovered it in a private collection.
The discovery, which so far has survived the scrutiny of a variety of scholars and scientists, could be one of the most important finds in New Testament archeology, said Hershel Shanks, publisher of the Biblical Archeology Review, which is reporting Lemaire's findings in its November/December issue. Until this find, the oldest existing text with the name "Jesus" was a papyrus fragment of the New Testament dated about a century after Jesus' death. One of the major questions facing historians is whether the James mentioned in the inscription is actually St. James, who headed the church in Jerusalem after Jesus' death, or whether the inscription refers to another family entirely.
••• Although Lemaire said at a news conference Monday that it is "very probable" the box held the bones of St. James, P. Kyle McCarter of Johns Hopkins University told the same gathering that "we may never be absolutely certain."
••• "In the work I do, we are rarely absolutely certain about anything," he said.
••• "It is real," said John McCray of Wheaton College in Illinois. "The big question is, are we 100% sure that the reference is to Jesus [Christ]? The answer is no, we are not 100% certain, but the probabilities are very strong that it is."
••• The reservations stem from the fact that no one knows where the ossuary has been for 19 centuries. The unidentified Israeli collector who owns the ossuary purchased it 15 years ago from a Jerusalem antiquities dealer for "$200 to $700," Lemaire said. The dealer, in turn, bought it from an Arab who said he found it in Silwan, a Jerusalem suburb that is the site of thousands of tombs.
••• McCarter said he was disappointed that there was little information available about the ossuary's original location and history. "This leaves us in the awkward position of always having doubts," he said. "They will always be there."
••• Ossuaries were used by Jews in the 1st century AD, transferring bones from burial caves to the boxes after all the flesh had naturally decayed. The practice was largely abandoned after the destruction of the Jewish Temple in AD 70. No one is quite sure why the practice started or stopped, but it provides a rare period of self-documentation in which commoners as well as leaders left their names carved in stone.
••• Lemaire is a well-known epigrapher who specializes in analyzing texts from the early Christian era. He was shown the ossuary on a visit to Jerusalem this year. The owner did not recognize the significance of the inscription.
••• The box is trapezoidal in shape, slightly wider at the top than the bottom. The lid is slightly convex. The inscription on the side is in simple Aramaic, in a cursive form of writing that was used only from about AD 10 to AD 70, Lemaire said. Aramaic was spoken throughout the Near East from about 300 BC to AD 650, and was the language of Jesus and his contemporaries.
••• Lemaire was suspicious of the text at first because it had an unusual way of saying "brother of."
••• But a search of other documents from the period by Lemaire revealed similar phraseology, thereby lending authenticity to the ossuary. It's unlikely a forger would have chosen such phraseology, he said.
••• Laboratory tests performed by researchers at the Geological Survey of Israel confirm that the box is made from a porous limestone from the Jerusalem area. Most important, the box is coated by a thin patina, or sheen, indicating that it was stored in a cave for centuries. That patina covers the inscription as well as the box, the researchers found, and it contains no chemicals indicating that it is of modern origin.
••• There is "no evidence that might detract from the authenticity" of the bone box, the Israeli Geological Survey wrote.
••• The bones were missing from the ossuary because they were probably taken by Jewish Christians who fled so that James' remains would not be desecrated by the Romans, speculates Ben Witherington III of Asbury Theological Seminary in Wilmore, Ky. The box itself would have been too heavy to carry, he said, especially if they were leaving in haste.
••• Unfortunately, all three names were very common in the Jerusalem of that period. Researchers have already discovered at least two ossuaries that say "James, son of Joseph," McCray said. "But to have all three names is highly significant and extremely unusual, and indicates the importance of the name Jesus."
••• Records from the period allowed Lemaire to estimate how many men in Jerusalem carried each of the three names. Using simple math, he was then able to estimate that there were no more than 20 men in the city of 80,000 who were named James, who had a father named Joseph and who had a brother named Jesus.
••• The fact that most people did not use ossuaries, and most who did so did not name their brothers on them, suggests that this ossuary is "very unusual." There is only one other known example in Aramaic of a brother being named on an ossuary, he said. Thus, this particular Jesus must have been very notable.
••• If the artifact is genuine, it could raise some thorny theological issues. Protestant doctrine says that James is a brother of Jesus, while Orthodox churches say that he is the son of Joseph by an earlier marriage, and thus only a halfbrother to Jesus.
••• Roman Catholic doctrine, however, says that Mary was a virgin all her life and that James is only a cousin of Jesus, perhaps the son of Joseph's brother Clopas. If the ossuary is genuine, it would rule out that interpretation, Witherington said.
••• According to the Jewish historian Josephus, James was stoned to death as a Jewish heretic in AD 62.
••• There are no current plans to display the ossuary publicly, but the Discovery Channel is producing a documentary about it that is expected to air for Easter.
///
••• Q&A01c - Discovery Consistent With Bible
••• October 26, 2002 -- According to the Times Wire Service The editor of a conservative Catholic magazine said the discovery of a first-century stone box that could have held the bones of Jesus' brother does not disprove church teaching on the perpetual virginity of Mary.
••• Researchers this week unveiled an ossuary, or stone box used to hold the bones of the dead, with the inscription "James, son of Joseph, brother of Jesus."
••• Experts from the Biblical Archaeology Society believe that the chances are strong that the inscription refers to the Jesus of the Gospels.
••• Catholics teach that Jesus' mother, Mary, remained a virgin after his birth. They also teach that biblical figures like James, whom the Bible refers to as a "brother" to Jesus, were actually cousins.
••• But even so, the discovery would not prove that Mary had other children and would not contradict the Catholic doctrine of the perpetual virginity of Mary, said Deal Hudson, editor of Crisis magazine,
••• Hudson said a traditional teaching from Orthodox Christianity could help explain the mystery.
••• Orthodox Christians believe that Jesus' father, Joseph, had been previously married, and that James was a product of that earlier marriage.
••• That teaching "might help to explain why [Joseph] was willing to take on a young, consecrated virgin as his bride," Hudson wrote.
••• "This would also make sense in light of Joseph's age. He apparently was much older than Mary and died before Jesus began his public ministry."
••• Hudson's views were shared by the Rev. Joseph Fitzmyer, a biblical expert at Catholic University, who was excited by the find but said the Bible itself is unclear about Jesus' family relationships.

Q&A01d IN THEORY - Are archeological findings relevant in matters of faith?
••• October 25, 2002 -- A French scholar has reported finding what he believes to be the earliest archeological evidence of the existence of Jesus, a burial box from AD 63 that is inscribed: "James, son of Joseph, brother of Jesus." Although it appears to be an authentic relic from the period, there is debate about whether it refers to Jesus of Nazareth or another family altogether. There are numerous other examples of discoveries that appear to support or challenge basic teachings and stories found in the various world religions, and their authenticity often is never resolved. From a religious perspective, are such findings cause for discussion and reevaluation of beliefs or are they largely irrelevant in matters of faith?
••• Archeological discoveries are very useful in evaluating past civilizations and how they lived, but they are not intended to be used as evidence about the life of a particular individual. The findings show only a narrow slice of the life that was lived, and it is easy to come to erroneous conclusions. Religious beliefs should be based on what is true, rather than on what is real, and focus on the message that is presented, and not be shaken by archeological evidence.
• Rabbi Leslie P. Bergson,
• ewish chaplain and Hillel
• director, Claremont Colleges
••• Authentic findings from antiquity are studied by scientists (archeologists), and usually confirm the biblical accuracy on historical, geographical and cultural matters. This is called external evidence for the authenticity and reliability of the Scriptures. The most significant external evidence that substantiates the New Testament are the 4,969 manuscripts of the New Testament that exist in libraries, universities, museums, etc., around the world. These manuscripts consist of copies and pieces of copies of the original manuscripts of the New Testament. This abundant and accurate manuscript evidence for the New Testament exceeds that of any other book from the ancient world. This new finding of a burial box from AD 63 serves as another external reminder that the Bible is reliable and it is still the indestructible, indescribable, irrefutable, eternal, living and most powerful book of books. If your belief system is based on what the Bible actually says, then findings like the burial box are a cause for rejoicing. If, however, your belief system is based on man-made doctrines and traditions, findings like the burial box do little and or mostly nothing to change systems that blatantly ignore the plain teachings of God's word.
• Pastor Brian E. Kennedy,
• Mt. Zion Baptist Church,
• Ontario
••• The discovery of the ossuary box is a very fascinating development in the search for the truth about those ancient days in the Near East. From my own religious perspective, however, it is not very relevant because most people of my Unitarian Universalist perspective see Jesus as not a part of a Trinity, but as a human being, not God. He was a man like us, but a historical figure we know very little about. I affirm any valid scholarly research, but my religion is more of this day, this time, seeing the divine within all human beings. We emulate prophets and heroes and unsung people who are doing their best in our time to make this a more compassionate world. It matters little to me whether or not his mother was a virgin or whether she gave birth to other children. We do know this -- there were no eyewitnesses to any of the happenings in his life, nothing was written down until decades after he died. I am well satisfied to be inspired by Jesus' supposed teachings -- so often radical and upsetting of the establishment -- they inform my hope and work for social justice and peace. That is enough.
• The Rev. Ellen Livingston, Monte Vista Unitarian
• Universalist Congregation, Montclair
••• The core of Christian faith depends on the witness of the disciples of Jesus. Central events, such as the miracles and resurrection of Christ, simply cannot be historically verified. Neither the content nor the quality of faith depends on archeological evidence. Nevertheless, the many finds, beginning in the 19th century, are exciting because they shed light on the environment of our ancestors in faith. The Catholic doctrine of Mary's perpetual virginity does not depend on whether James and other "brothers of Jesus" were actually cousins or children of Joseph by a former marriage. Of course, if it could be proven that the ossuary is truly that of James the Apostle, it would settle that question.
• The Rev. Thomas Welbers,
• Our Lady of the Assumption
• Catholic Church, Claremont
••• Archeological findings may or may not be accepted by religious teachings. The Koran has already spoken about historical nations as a lesson to the new generations so that they know how to act, react and obey God. Beliefs in Islam have already been declared in specific and in general. If there is any archeological finding of scientists that agree with the Islamic beliefs, it will be taken for granted. On the other hand, if the findings contradict the teachings of Islam, then Muslims will reject the findings of the scientists and rely heavily on their religious teachings. Scientists could be right or wrong in their research. To the Muslims, the Koran is the final authority directly from God through Prophet Muhammad to humanity at large. The Koran is considered by Muslims to be the summation, culmination and purification of all the previous messages of God to his prophets and messengers. Islam has spoken so beautifully and respectfully about Jesus the son of Mary. She is one of the very few women mentioned in the Koran and who is very much respected by all Muslims of the world. There is Chapter 19 in the Koran about Mary, the virgin, the immaculate, the mother of Jesus. Also Chapters 3 and 5 are about Jesus, Mary and their family. Muslims love Jesus, Mary, Moses, David, Jacob, Issac, Abraham, Aaron, Joseph, Noah and Muhammad. There is no discrepancy among them even if archeological scientists find anything here and there. God bless all.
••• -- Dr. Ahmad Sakr, director, Islamic Education Center,Walnut

Part 02 / Television With No Borders / We Preserve The Moment
••• Q&A02a Priest Scandal Could Set History in Motion
••• March 21, 2002 -- Will every one of the 195 Catholic diocese in the United States be tainted by the priest-pedophilia scandal? Probably. Will investigators, prosecutors and trial lawyers pick through every new and old allegation? Absolutely. Will more priests end up in jail? Obviously. And will huge financial settlements push the American church toward bankruptcy? Quite possibly.
••• A huge historical wheel is turning. The Catholic Church in the United States, which created its first diocese in St. Augustine, Fla., in 1565, is going to be transformed; call it the Episcopalianization of the Roman Church.
••• What does that mean? In 1534, Henry VIII of England, furious at the pope for refusing to grant him a divorce, took control of the Catholic Church in his kingdom; he named himself "supreme head on Earth of the Church of England." That was anathema, literally. The organizational essence of the church is that all believers follow the guidance of the bishop of Rome, who, in the words of the Dogmatic Constitution, is recognized as "the perpetual and visible source of and foundation of the unity of the bishops and the multitude of the faithful."
••• So Pope Clement VII excommunicated Henry, and a minor civil war swept across England for the next two decades.

Q&A02b THE NATION Billy Graham Apologizes for '72 Remarks
••• WASHINGTON, March 2, 2002 -- The Rev. Billy Graham apologized Friday for a 1972 conversation with former President Nixon in which he said the Jewish "stranglehold" on the media was ruining the country and must be broken.
••• The conversation was among 500 hours of Nixon tapes released by the National Archives. Most were recorded between January and June 1972.
••• "Although I have no memory of the occasion, I deeply regret comments I apparently made in an Oval Office conversation with President Nixon . . . some 30 years ago," Graham said in a written statement released by his Texas public relations firm. "They do not reflect my views and I sincerely apologize for any offense caused by the remarks." In the conversation with Nixon, the Southern Baptist evangelist expressed disdain for what he saw as Jewish domination of the media.
••• "This stranglehold has got to be broken or this country's going down the drain," Graham said, agreeing with Nixon's comments earlier in the conversation.
••• "You believe that?" Nixon says in response.
••• "Yes, sir," says Graham.
••• "Oh boy. So do I," Nixon agrees, then says: "I can't ever say that, but I believe it."
••• "No, but if you get elected a second time, then we might be able to do something," Graham says, reassuring the president.
••• Friday, Graham said his legacy has been one of working for stronger bonds between Jews and Christians.
••• "Throughout my ministry, I have sought to build bridges between Jews and Christians," Graham said. "I will continue to strongly support all future efforts to advance understanding and mutual respect between our communities."
••• Graham, 83, has been in frail health for years.
••• The friendship between Graham and Nixon began during the Eisenhower administration, when Nixon was vice president.
••• Later in the conversation, when Nixon raises the subject of Jewish influence in Hollywood and the media, Graham says, "A lot of Jews are great friends of mine.
••• "They swarm around me and are friendly to me. Because they know that I am friendly to Israel and so forth. But they don't know how I really feel about what they're doing to this country, and I have no power and no way to handle them," Graham says.
••• Nixon says: "You must not let them know."
••• Q&A02c - 911 / Billy Graham / Nixon Recording: Subject: White House - Finally, The Truth on  National TV
••• Billy Graham's daughter was being interviewed on the Early  Show and Jane Clayson asked her "How could God let something like this happen?" And Anne Graham gave an extremely profound and insightful response. She said "I believe that God is deeply saddened by this, just as we are, but for years we've been telling God to get out of our schools, to get out of our government  and to get out of our lives. And being the gentleman that He is, I believe that  He has calmly backed out. How can we expect God to give us His blessing and His  protection if we demand that He leave us alone?"
••• I know there's been  a lot of an email going around in regards to 9/11/01, but this really makes you  think. If you don't have time, at least skim through it, but the bottom line is  something to think about..
••• In light of recent events...terrorists attack, school  shootings, etc. Let's see, I think it started when Madeline Murray O'Hare (she  was murdered, her body was found recently) complained she didn't want any prayer  in our schools, and we said OK
••• Then, someone said you better not read the Bible in  school... the Bible that says thou shalt not kill; thou shalt not steal, and  love your neighbor as yourself. And we said, OK
••• Then, Dr.. Benjamin Spock said we  shouldn't spank our children when they misbehave because their little  personalities would be warped and we might damage their self-esteem (Dr. Spock's  son committed suicide) and we said, an expert should know what he's talking  about so we said OK
••• Then, someone said teachers and principals better not  discipline our children when they misbehave. And the school administrators said  no faculty member in this school better touch a student when they misbehave because we don't want any bad publicity, and we surely don't want to be sued  (There's big difference between disciplining and touching, beating, smacking,  humiliating, kicking, etc.) And we said, OK
••• Then someone said, let's let our  daughters have abortions if they want, and they won't even have to tell their  parents. And we said, OK
••• Then some wise school board member said, since boys will be  boys and they're going to do it anyway, let's give our sons all the condoms they want, so they can have all the fun they desire, and we won't have to tell their  parents they got them at school. And we said, OK
••• Then some of our top elected officials  said it doesn't matter what we do in private as long as we do our jobs. And  agreeing with them, we said it doesn't matter to me what anyone, including the  President, does in private as long as I have a job and the economy is good
••• And then someone said let's print magazines with pictures of  nude women and call it wholesome, down-to-earth appreciation for the beauty of  the female body. And we said, OK
••• And then someone else took that appreciation a step  further and published pictures of nude children and then stepped further still  by making them available on the Internet. And we said OK; they're entitled to  their free speech
••• And then the entertainment industry said, let's make TV shows  and movies that promote profanity, violence, and illicit sex. And let's record music that encourages rape, drugs, murder, suicide, and satanic themes. And we said it's just entertainment, it has no adverse effect, and nobody takes it seriously anyway, so go right ahead
••• Now we're asking ourselves why our  children have no conscience, why they don't know right from wrong, and why it  doesn't bother them to kill strangers, their classmates, and themselves
••• Probably, if we think about it long and hard enough, we can  figure it out
••• I think it has a great deal to do with "WE REAP WHAT WE SOW."
••• "Dear God, Why didn't you save the little girl killed in her  classroom?" Sincerely, Concerned Student... AND THE REPLY "Dear Concerned  Student, I am not allowed in schools". Sincerely, God
••• Funny how simple it is for  people to trash God and then wonder why the world's going to hell. Funny how we  believe what the newspapers say, but question what the Bible says
••• Funny how everyone  wants to go to heaven provided they do not have to believe, think, say, or do  anything the Bible says
••• Funny how someone can say "I believe in God" but still follow  Satan who, by the way, also "believes" in God
••• Funny how we are quick to judge but not  to be judged
••• Funny how you can send a thousand 'jokes' through e-mail and  they spread like wildfire, but when you start sending messages regarding the Lord, people think twice about sharing
••• Funny how the lewd, crude, vulgar and  obscene pass freely through cyberspace, but the public discussion of God is  suppressed in the school and workplace
••• Funny how someone can be so fired up for  Christ on Sunday, but be an invisible Christian the rest of the week
••• Are you laughing?
••• Funny how when you go to forward this  message, you will not send it to many on your address list because you're not  sure what they believe, or what they will think of you for sending it to them.  Funny how I can be more worried about what other people think of me than what  God thinks of me
••• Are you thinking?
••• Pass it on if you think it has merit. If  not then just discard it....no one will know that you did. But, if you discard  this thought process, then don't sit back and complain about what a bad shape the world is in!

Part 03 / "Can a race or culture maintain itself as a political party, government and a religion."
Today's Puzzle: Who said that Samson committed suicide?
••• Q&A03a China's Next Challenge: Christians and the Microchip
••• SHANGHAI, October 22, 2002 -- Richard Chang, a devout Christian raised in Taiwan and educated in the United States, has opened a $1.6-billion semiconductor factory here and plans to build a church for his 3,000 employees.
••• Chinese officials have displayed a cool, some would say hostile, attitude toward foreign religions. But they have put out the welcome mat for Chang because they desperately need his expertise.
••• This communist nation has embraced capitalism and become a manufacturing power, exporting toys, appliances and other products to every corner of the globe. Now, government officials want China to compete in a far more challenging arena: the making of semiconductors, the silicon chips that power everything from cell phones to missile guidance systems.
••• The semiconductor is one of the sophisticated, high-value products that form the cornerstone of an advanced economy. Chinese officials believe that mastery of the 250-step production process for the chips will teach factory managers and engineers the skills needed to lift China into the top tier of industrial powers.
••• With the single-minded determination it once focused on ideological crusades, the government has embarked on a crash program to develop a world-class semiconductor industry, using tax breaks, free land and other incentives to attract foreign companies and know-how.
••• Though primitive by the standards of the United States, Japan or Taiwan, Chinese chip making has taken a big step in the last few years.
••• A recent report by the U.S. General Accounting Office said several of China's factories, using foreign capital and technology, are one "generation" or less behind the world's leading semiconductor makers. Chip technology undergoes a significant advance, entering a new generation, every two years.
••• Chinese leaders are counting on foreign technology experts such as Chang to help them make the next leap.
••• Under tight security in a cavernous building in Shanghai's Pudong district, employees of Chang's Semiconductor Manufacturing International Corp. work in sterile "clean rooms," producing silicon chips with circuits as narrow as 0.18 micron, barely one-thousandth the diameter of a human hair.
••• The factory, among the most advanced in China, makes semiconductors for companies in Japan, the U.S. and Europe. The chips are packaged and sold under those firms' brand names and delivered to customers in China, which put them in a variety of electronic products.
••• "Because of our proximity, it is easy for us to penetrate the China market," said Chang, a 53-year-old engineer who is the company's president and chief executive. "We are not the price leader, but we offer better services in China. And performance-wise, we are first-rate."
••• China produced $900 million worth of semiconductors in 2000, compared with $11 billion for Taiwan. But it is not only in volume that China lags behind the industry leaders. Sophisticated factories such as Chang's are rare. Nearly all the chips made here are of the rudimentary kind used in microwave ovens and televisions — "trailing-edge" technology, as it is known in the industry.
••• China does not make enough even of these comparatively primitive chips to meet the demands of its factories, whose consumption of semiconductors is growing 30% a year. The country imports 85% of its chips.
••• "Semiconductors are the key to the information technology industry," said Yu Zhongyu, president of the China Semiconductor Industry Assn. "If we want to develop further, we need to have this skill."
••• Five-Year Plan
••• Just a few years ago, China's prospects in this high-tech realm seemed poor.
••• The United States restricted Chinese access to the most advanced American semiconductor technology out of concern that it might be put to military use. Air and water pollution made it hard to create the sterile environment needed for chip manufacturing. Skilled technicians and managers were in short supply, a legacy of the late-1960s Cultural Revolution and its purges of intellectuals.
••• China also lacked the necessary investment capital. Building a semiconductor factory, or "fab," involves huge start-up costs more than $1 billion in equipment alone.
••• To develop a globally competitive industry, China needed foreign capital and talent. In 1995, the government set out to get both with Project 909, a five-year plan with ambitious goals for building chip plants and developing technical expertise.
••• China lowered barriers to foreign investment and set up high-tech zones offering free land and tax holidays. To encourage Chinese factories to use chips made in China, the government imposed a 17% tax on imported semiconductors and charged just 3% for those produced domestically.
••• Chip makers from Japan and later Taiwan began setting up production facilities in China. Initially, they had to export most of their output, so home-grown enterprises would be protected from competition. But the government gradually permitted foreign-invested factories to sell more of their semiconductors in China. That attracted more foreign firms.
••• Today, Motorola Inc. operates a giant semiconductor plant and a test and assembly facility in Tianjin, a port city southeast of Beijing. Even as it slashes jobs in other countries, Motorola has announced plans to spend $6.6 billion over the next five years in China, building at least 10 more semiconductor wafer fabrication plants.
••• "Everybody is making a bold dash into China," said Kirk Pond, president and chief executive of Fairchild Semiconductor International Inc. The American firm is building a $200-million facility near Shanghai to assemble and test chips for sale in China.
••• Taiwanese leaders feel particularly threatened by all this. They fear that the loss of chip-making jobs will hollow out the island nation's economy and give China leverage in their long-running political struggle.
••• For years, Taiwan barred its semiconductor makers from doing business on the mainland, though companies found ways around the rules. But this year, after lobbying by Taiwanese companies, the government eased those restrictions, permitting the transfer of all but the most sophisticated technology.
••• Microsemi Corp. of Irvine, a leading supplier of chips to the U.S. military and space programs, is among the American companies making their way to China. Eager to expand its commercial and industrial business, the firm has opened a factory in Shanghai, its first outside the United States.
••• The factory, a joint venture with a Chinese company, makes a specialized line of chips used in power plants and other industrial applications.
••• Raw materials are cheap, and engineers with advanced degrees and five years of experience can be hired for less than $500 a month, said Andy Yuen, Microsemi's vice president of international operations. The factory produces high-quality chips at one-third the cost of a similar product in the United States.
••• "We chose Shanghai as a center because everything we need is within 20 miles of our factory," said Yuen, a Hong Kong native who oversees the firm's operations in Asia and Europe. "Raw materials, chemicals, tooling — you name it, they're here. And instead of just having low-end assembly workers, we can use Shanghai as a place for brainpower. My goal is to do 100% here, no exceptions."
••• Return From Exile
••• Foreign technocrats such as Yuen and Chang provide China with something money can't buy: extensive experience in the intensely competitive semiconductor industry.
••• Chang was born in Nanjing, China, and raised in Kaoshiung, Taiwan, where his parents moved before his first birthday. They were among the thousands of Chinese who fled after the Communists wrested control of the mainland in 1949.
••• After graduating from National Taiwan University and completing his military service, Chang went to the United States, where he got a master's degree in engineering science at the State University of New York in Buffalo. He and his wife, also an engineer, went to work at Texas Instruments Inc. in Dallas.
••• Over the next two decades, Chang played a key role in the company's global expansion, helping oversee the launch of six semiconductor factories in Asia and Europe.
••• After taking early retirement from Texas Instruments in 1997, he decided to return to Taiwan. Backed by a group of international investors, Chang founded Worldwide Semiconductor Manufacturing Corp., which made custom chips for the world's leading technology firms. In 2000, Worldwide merged with a Taiwanese chip maker, and some of Chang's customers and investors urged him to start another factory.
••• With $1.6 billion in funding from firms such as Goldman Sachs and H&Q Asia Pacific, a Palo Alto investment group, Chang went shopping for a location. Officials in Shanghai offered him the most attractive tax breaks, along with cheap land, water and electricity and a large supply of technical talent.
••• But for Chang, the critical factor was spiritual. A missionary trapped in an engineer's body, he saw his company as a way to strengthen Christianity in the world's most populous nation.
••• "China is a good place in many aspects. The market is huge. Manufacturing costs are competitive. The pool of talent is also very good," he said. "But frankly, I was thinking about how I could share God's love with the Chinese more than how I could help the economy."
••• Chang traveled the globe assembling a team of chip designers, engineers and production experts, many from the Chinese Christian community. He offered the classic tech-company bargain: a chance to be on the ground floor of a pioneering venture, with stock options. To ease employees' culture shock, he is building a housing development near the Pudong factory, with a bilingual school.
••• Roger Lee, 43, gave up a good job at Micron Technology Inc. of Boise, Idaho, one of the world's largest memory chip companies, to join Chang's start-up as a vice president. Lee also took a substantial pay cut. Chang pays his employees at prevailing Chinese rates, which for top executives are 25% to 30% of U.S. salaries.
••• Lee worried about tearing his wife and three sons, ages 7 to 15, away from their five-acre spread in Boise and the friends and family they had known all their lives. But Lee, who was born in China and educated in the U.S., shared Chang's conviction that their native country was poised to become a world center for chip manufacturing.
••• At Micron, where Lee worked for 15 years, the Princeton graduate played a critical role in developing products and had 115 patents to his name. He hopes to replicate that record at Chang's company, where he is head of memory technology development.
••• "When I joined Micron, it was a start-up company," Lee said. "When I left, there were 12,000 employees. It is hard for one person to make a difference."
••• Shou Gouping, a 40-year-old engineer for Chang's company, left Beijing for the United States two years after the 1989 Tiananmen Square massacre and did not expect to see his homeland again. After obtaining advanced degrees in electrical engineering, Shou worked for technology firms in Silicon Valley. He met Hai Ling, a Chinese immigrant who had come to the U.S. to study physics. They were married in 1998 and had a son the next year.
••• Early last year, Shou's aging mother grew sick, and the couple returned to China with their son. After a decade in the United States, Shou said, it felt good to be surrounded by family and the culture and language of his childhood. Though people were poor by U.S. standards, he sensed an optimism about China's future.
••• Three weeks later, Shou and his wife reluctantly returned to Sunnyvale, Calif. But they left their son with Shou's mother and decided to look for a way back to China. Through a friend in Florida, Shou heard that Chang was hiring. He took a job as a technical manager in the firm's design service department, providing computer support.
••• Shou, a Christian, said that Chang's spiritual message resonated deeply with him.
••• "I had a feeling that my life should be in China, serving people and God," he said.
••• Chang and his employees have had their share of frustrations, including tussles with local officials over taxes, delays in getting sophisticated U.S. equipment because of export controls, and a shortage of experienced personnel.
••• But analysts say the company's prospects are bright. Chang has cut deals with industry giants such as Toshiba Corp., Fujitsu Ltd. and Singapore's Chartered Semiconductor Manufacturing Ltd. to obtain leading-edge technology. In return, Chang gave them an ownership stake in his firm or agreed to produce chips for them.
••• Chang's company "is successful because it has outside connections," said Dorothy Lai, a Hong Kong analyst with Gartner Dataquest, a technology research firm based in Stamford, Conn.
••• Seven months ago, Chang began holding religious services in a rented building near his factory. He hopes to start construction soon on a church for his employees.
••• "Every time we have done something successful, I openly mention that this is done with the Lord's blessing," he said. "At first, some people felt awkward about this. But as they realize we really practice our beliefs, they accept us."

04 / TODAYS PUZZLE: DO YOU BELIEVE?
••• Q&A04b Do You Believe In God? - Survey Measures Thoughts on Religion From Various Wire Reports. In a look at Americans' beliefs, a new survey shows that 44% think the Bible, the Koran and the Book of Mormon express the same spiritual truths.
••• October 12, 2002 -- The survey by the Barna Research Group also found that three-quarters of American adults believe in the Trinity, agree that "every person has a soul that will live forever, either in God's presence or absence," and reject the idea that only well-trained theological scholars can correctly interpret the Bible.
••• Though 44% of those surveyed said "the Bible, the Koran and the Book of Mormon are all different expressions of the same spiritual truths," 38% disagreed.
••• Fifty-one percent of Americans agree that "praying to deceased saints can have a positive effect in a person's life" and 39% disagreed. But the difference of opinion is more striking between Protestants and Catholics, with 80% of Catholics agreeing, compared with 41% of Protestants. Sixty percent of Latinos agree with the statement.
••• Thirty-five percent of American adults believe it is "possible to communicate with others after they die," compared with 55% who dispute that idea
••• Fifty-nine percent of those polled said Satan, or the devil, is not a living being but rather a symbol of evil, compared with 34% who believe Satan exists.
••• Americans are divided over whether Jesus sinned when he lived on Earth, with 42% saying he did and 50% saying he did not.
••• Respondents also were divided about whether a person who "is generally good or does enough good things for others" while on Earth will earn a place in heaven. Fifty percent agreed and 42% disagreed.
••• Asked whether "the Bible does not specifically condemn homosexuality," 27% agreed and 53% disagreed.
••• George Barna, president of the Ventura-based marketing research firm, said the results reflect an increasing inclusiveness about faith among many Americans.
••• "Christians have increasingly been adopting spiritual views that come from Islam, Wicca, secular humanism, the Eastern religions and other sources," he said in a statement.
••• "Because we remain a largely Bible-illiterate society, few are alarmed [by] or even aware of the slide toward syncretism--a belief system that blindly combines beliefs from many different faith perspectives."
••• The results are based on a telephone survey of 630 American adults in August 2002. CLICK FOR MORE STORY.

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