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HISTORY OF CHINA
1950 to 1976

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FEATURE STORY
• 02. TIMELINE
03. GO TO - 1977
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120 PIXELS 3 columns

1. Feature Story /

China Events 1950 to 1976

02. TIMELINE -

1949 / 10 - The Soviet Union recognized the People's Republic on October 2, 1949. Earlier in the year, Mao Tsetung had proclaimed his policy of "leaning to one side" as a commitment to the socialist bloc.
1950 - Tibet becomes part of the People's Republic of China.
1950 / 02 - In February 1950, after months of hard bargaining, China and the Soviet Union signed the Treaty of Friendship, Alliance, and Mutual Assistance, valid until 1980. The pact also was intended to counter Japan or any power's joining Japan for the purpose of aggression.
1950 / 10 - By 1950 international recognition of the Communist government had increased considerably, but it was slowed by China's involvement in the Korean War. In October 1950, sensing a threat to the industrial heartland in northeast China from the advancing United Nations (UN) forces in the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea), units of the PLA--calling themselves the Chinese People's Volunteers--crossed the YaluJiang () River into North Korea in response to a North Korean request for aid. Almost simultaneously the PLA forces also marched into Xizang to reassert Chinese sovereignty over a region that had been in effect independent of Chinese rule since the fall of the Qing dynasty in 1911.
1951 / 00 - In 1951 the UN declared China to be an aggressor in Korea and sanctioned a global embargo on the shipment of arms and war materiel to China. This step foreclosed for the time being any possibility that the People's Republic might replace Nationalist China (on Taiwan) as a member of the UN and as a veto-holding member of the UN Security Council.
1951 / 12 - 1951-52 drive against political enemies was accompanied by land reform, which had actually begun under the Agrarian Reform Law of June 28, 1950. The redistribution of land was accelerated, and a class struggle landlords and wealthy peasants was launched. An ideological reform campaign requiring self-criticisms and public confessions by university faculty members, scientists, and other professional workers was given wide publicity. Artists and writers were soon the objects of similar treatment for failing to heed Mao Tsetung's dictum that culture and literature must reflect the class interest of the working people, led by the CCP.
1951 / 12 - These campaigns were accompanied in 1951 and 1952 by the san fan ( or "three anti") and wu fan ( or "five anti") movements. The former was directed ostensibly against the evils of "corruption, waste, and bureaucratism"; its real aim was to eliminate incompetent and politically unreliable public officials and to bring about an efficient, disciplined, and responsive bureaucratic system. The wu fan movement aimed at eliminating recalcitrant and corrupt businessmen and industrialists, who were in effect the targets of the CCP's condemnation of "tax evasion, bribery, cheating in government contracts, thefts of economic intelligence, and stealing of state assets." In the course of this campaign the party claimed to have uncovered a well-organized attempt by businessmen and industrialists to corrupt party and government officials. This charge was enlarged into an assault on the bourgeoisie as a whole. The number of people affected by the various punitive or reform campaigns was estimated in the millions.
1953 / 01 - The First Five-Year Plan stressed the development of heavy industry on the Soviet model. Soviet economic and technical assistance was expected to play a significant part in the implementation of the plan, and technical agreements were signed with the Soviets in 1953 and 1954. For the purpose of economic planning, the first modern census was taken in 1953; the population of mainland China was shown to be 583 million, a figure far greater than had been anticipated.
1953 / 12 - Major political developments included the centralization of party and government administration. Elections were held in 1953 for delegates to the First National People's Congress, China's national legislature, which met in 1954. The congress promulgated the state constitution of 1954 and formally elected Mao Tsetung chairman (or president) of the People's Republic; it elected Liu Shaoqi ( 1898-1969) chairman of the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress; and named Zhou Enlai premier of the new State Council.
1953 / 1957 - The Transition to Socialism, 1953-57. The period of officially designated "transition to socialism" corresponded to China's First Five-Year Plan (1953-57). The period was characterized by efforts to achieve industrialization, collectivization of agriculture, and political centralization.
1954 / 00 - In the midst of these major governmental changes, and helping to precipitate them, was a power struggle within the CCP leading to the 1954 purge of Political Bureau member Gao Gang () and Party Organization Department head Rao Shushi (), who were accused of illicitly trying to seize control of the party.
1956 / 00 - As part of The First Five-Year Plan, that commenced in 1953, the govenments effort to encourage the participation of intellectuals in the new regime statred to pay off. By mid-1956 there began an official effort to liberalize the political climate. Cultural and intellectual figures were encouraged to speak their minds on the state of CCP rule and programs. Mao Tsetung personally took the lead in the movement, which was launched under the classical slogan "Let a hundred flowers bloom, let the hundred schools of thought contend" (). At first the party's repeated invitation to air constructive views freely and openly was met with caution.
1957 / 00 - By mid-1957, however, the 5 year plan movement that started in 1953, unexpectedly mounted, bringing denunciation and criticism against the party in general and the excesses of its cadres in particular. Startled and embarrassed, leaders turned on the critics as "bourgeois rightists" () and launched the Anti-Rightist Campaign. The Hundred Flowers Campaign, sometimes called the Double Hundred Campaign (), apparently had a sobering effect on the CCP leadership.
1958 - Mao Tsetung launches the "Great Leap Forward", a five-year economic plan. Farming is collectivised and labour-intensive industry is introduced. The drive produces economic breakdown and is abandoned after two years. Disruption to agriculture is blamed for the deaths by starvation of millions of people following poor harvests.
1958 / 0000 - 1958 - The square quadruples in size to its present dimensions, with the massive Great Hall of the People on the west side.
1958 / 0000 - Mao Tsetung under took the great leap forward and established rural communes and a crash program of village industrialization.
1959 - Chinese forces suppress large-scale revolt in Tibet.
1959 - Hu Jintao chose hydraulic engineering upon entering Beijing's elite Tsinghua University in 1959 and developed a reputation as something of a "dancing prince charmer," according to a biography co-written by former aide Ren Zhichu. The dancing helped him catch the eye of classmate Liu Yongqing, his future wife.
1962 - Brief conflict with India over disputed Himalayan border.
1964 - Hu Jintao became an active member of the Communist Youth League and joined the party in 1964.
1964 - Hu Jintao joined the Communist Party in 1964, while an engineering student at the prestigious Qinghua University in Beijing. He graduated in 1965 with a degree in hydraulic engineering and took a teaching position at the university. During the Cultural Revolution, he spent a year as a manual laborer in Gansu province. From 1968 to 1980 he developed leadership skills while drawing on his engineering background in several posts with provincial industrial and technical commissions in Gansu. Hu Jintao also established close ties with Song Ping, a party elder who would help propel Hu Jintao to the top echelon of the party.
1964 / 0000 - China exploded its first atomic (fission) bomb.
1966 / 0300 - 1966-76: Millions of Red Guards troop through the square to glimpse Chairman Mao Tsetung during the Cultural Revolution.
1966 / 0300 - Mao Tsetung moved to Shanghai from where he waged the Cultural Revolution. The Mao Tsetung Group formed Red Guard units dominated by youths and students, closing the schools to free students for agitation. The Red Guards campaign end against, old ideas, old culture, old habits and old customs, old. Often they were no more than an uncontrolled mob and brutality was frequent. They felt that during those 10 years of the cultural revolution from 1966 to 1976, the people of the whole nationalism the Chinese people had suffered a great loss. Many had died.
1966-76 - "Cultural Revolution", Mao Tsetung's 10-year political and ideological campaign aimed at reviving revolutionary spirit, produces massive social, economic and political upheaval.
1967 / 0000 - China produced a fusion bomb.
1971 / 0701 - The People's Republic of China replace Taiwan in the United Nations. -
1972 - US President Richard Nixon visits China. Both countries declare a desire to normalise relations.
1972 / 0221 - The Nixon Administration - Feb. 21-28 1972; President Richard Nixon visits China. - The historic trip is the first by U S. President and follows tensive preparation by secretary of State Henry A. Kissinger and Chinese Premier Chou En-lai. Nixon exchanges compliments discusses poetry with ailing Chinese leader Mao Tsetung, and the president and Chou trade toasts with potent Chinese liquor. To mark the occasion, Madame Mao Tsetung receives the state visitors in traditional Chinese silks. The visit produces the 1,800 word Shanghai Communique, in which the U.S. acknowledges that Taiwan is a part of "one China" and which has been the basis of U.S.-China relations since. Nixon later describes his trip as "the week that changed the world." He would return six times after his resignation in 1974, including a controversial visit in 1989, just four months after the June 4 Tiananmen Square incident.
1972 / 0228 - President Nixon dines with Mao Tsetung in the Great Hall of the People.
1972 / 0228 - Nixon signs historic communique and ends U S containment policy towards China.
1975 / 1201 - The Ford Administration - Dec. 1-5,1975: President Gerald Ford visits China. - Relations are tense, in part because of China's political transition. Though still lucid, Mao Tsetung is suffering from Parkinson's disease and can no longer speak cohererently or stand without assistance. Although Ford reaffirms the goal of normalizing still revolving bilateral relations, little substantive progress is made.
1976 / 0108 - Premier Chou En-lai dies. Hundreds of thousands pack Tiananmen to honor the memory of Premier Chou En-lai.
1976 / 0108 - Deng Xiaoping was appointed within a month by Hua Guofeng, former minister of public security (police) as Chou En-lai's successor as -- vice premier .
1976 / 0400 - Hua Guofeng became permanent Premier. Hua Guofeng was named (elected) successor to Mao Tsetung as Chairman of the Communist Party. Before his selection, there was a short power move by Jiang Quingm Mao Tsetungs' widow and three of her colleagues to take over the government. The "Gang of Four" all supported her husband, just before Mao Tsetung death.
1976 / 09 - Mao Tsetung Dies, September 9, 1976. Mao Tsetung was born December 26, 1893, in Shaoshan, Hunan province. Mao Tsetung was the chairman of the Politburo of the Communist Party of China from 1943, (the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China) -- from 1945 until his death in 1976. Under his leadership, the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) became the ruling party of Mainland China after victory over Chinese Nationalists, the Kuomintang, in the Chinese Civil War.
1976 / 1001 - Jiang Quingm Mao Tsetungs' widow and three of her colleagues, called the "Gang of Four", continued in their attempts to take over her husband, Mao Tsetung death. Hua Guofeng was (elected) and named successor to Mao Tsetung as Chairman of the Communist Party.
1976 / 0910 - Deng Xiaoping. Deng emerges as the de-facto leader of the world's most populous nation in the few years following Mao Tsetung's death in 1976. Deng was also one of only a handful of peasant revolutionaries to lead China, a group that includes Mao Tsetung and the founders of the Han and Ming dynasties. By carefully mobilizing his supporters within the Chinese Communist Party, Deng was able to outmaneuver Mao Tsetung's anointed successor Hua Guofeng. By 1980-1981, Deng ousted Hua from his top Communist leadership positions.
1976 / 1010 - Jiang Quingm Mao Tsetungs' widow and three of her radical colleagues arrested. The "Gang of Four" was denounced for having undermined the party, the government, and the economy. They were convicted in 1981.

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China History03 - 1977-1989
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