/Images/backarrowsmart90.gif 1902 - WirelessTelephone®™© Company of America - smart90.com/tvimagazine/1902 Edition

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• 106 Wireless Telephone™USPTO the $-21Billion Question

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The "Wireless Telephone®™©" TimeLine -- 1902 to 2011

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• 106 Wireless Telephone™USPTO the $-21Billion Question
• 106NBS-More02 Challenges USPTO History & Fees
• 102NBS-More02 Challenges USPTO History & Fees
• 101NBS-More02 Challenges USPTO History & Fees
• 101NBS-More02ChallengesUSPTO/"Defending the Source-Identifier Demonstrations
• 106NBS-More02ChallengesUSPTO/"Defending the Source-Identifier Demonstrations
• 102NBS-More02ChallengesUSPTO/"Defending the Source-Identifier Demonstrations
• 102WIRELESS TELEPHONE Industrial School of Arts & Sciences - 1902
• 102-1902-Wireless Telephony Demonstration-Washington, D.C
• 102The Kingsbury Commitment 1913
• 106The Kingsbury Commitment 1913
• 102AT&T-1992: Wireless-Data Alliances unveiled by AT&T

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• 106 Wireless Telephone™USPTO the $-21Billion Question
• 102NBS-More02 Challenges USPTO History & Fees

2011-WiTelMonth108w.jpg• 106 /102NBSChallengesUSPTORule • 106 The NBS WirelessTelephone.Org Challenges USPTO Ruling.1• 101 NBS Wireless Telephone.Org Challenges
•••••• The Politics of Washington D.C. has rarely seen a SmartDaafBoys.com photo or NBS documentary it didn't like. Ever since Nathan B. Stubblefield bombarded music and voices into the air around and over the Potomac River in 1902, the users of today's smartphone have been most willing to put up with his WiMax187 cellphone towers, and paying the $90.00 per month phone bill. Even with the massive on-line traffic jam vista that go along with a Google smartphone, searching PhoneNumber.com for NBS100.com's latest SinTrends.com News, doesn't seem to bother the User . . . yet."
• But that was before the American 100-year-old media company -/Imagespeople/%23NBSvsFCCportz108w.jpg
- came forward with it's $21-Billion US dollars in charges to its TeleCom users, and its plan to file its September 2010, USPTO Applications; the $-Billion NBS, "Wireless Telephone®™©" TradeMark upgrade, and Patent pending status for it's unique WiTEL Global Stubbyte ID Theft System.
• Based on the newly activated FTC's Red Flags
Anti-ID theft Rules -- as of June, 2010, "the NBS Wireless Telephone®™© will become the $-Billion iconic ServiceMark Organization which people worldwide will want to be part of -- because of its "separate and distinct" WiFi-187 coolness," says "MARK" Anderson, the CEO of the PSI group. The short name for the 104-year-old "company" and its U.S. trademark is WiTEL®™©. The global ®™ www names are: WiTel.com, WiMax187.com, and WirelessTelephone.Org. All are ICANN registries.
nbstubblefieldPofM-108w.jpg••• The by-product, "the ABCees" of WiTEL, (compona elements, and effects) created by the arts and science established the distinct and separate components of today's Wireless Telephone®™© -- have long dominated the thoughts and actions of many American companies. Bill Gates, and Paul Allen of Microsoft; Steve Jobs of Apple; and Larry Page and Sergey Brin of Google are a few of those Americans who earned $Billions. But that has started to change. China has Baidu.com, and Germany has Google.de.
• Imagine, explains Troy Cory-Stubblefiield -- "the USPTO" finally telephoned."
••• The unexpected "generic" move took place when they set the 20th day of January for a telephonic meeting with the principals of the WirelessTelephoneOrg. Their intentions? "To explain the reasons, as to why they should, or should not decline the granting of our "104-year-old Wireless Telephone®™© trademark and logo."
• During the course of the telephonic meeting --
"it was quite obvious I wasn't talking to WITEL achievers like, Steve Jobs or Larry Page of Apple or Google," said Troy. Each one of the three USPTO examining attorneys, Aneeta Jordan, John Lincoski, and Nicholas A. Coleman, expressed their desires to take away the art and science, and monetary authority the Wireless Telephone®™© TradeMark provided NBS.
••• The existing 104-year-old NBS TradeMark could become extinct, only if and when . . . by enacting their "generic phraseology theory." Anderson explains their theory would in essence -- "jeopardize NBS's current $21-Billions of Dollars in revenue receivables, by USPTO's name seizure."
• Were they exceeding their USPTO authority? --
••• "We believe, they were" said Charles Portz, the lead attorney for the WirelessTelephoneOrg ®™©. "Not only does their assertion of authority go well beyond any authority provided by Congress, but the USPTO theory would jeopardize NBS WirelessTelephoneOrg's collections of over $21-Billion in revenue.
•• A negative decision could, and would completely destroy the separate distinct art, and science by U.S. innovators, and the loss of the trademark "Wireless Telephone" owned by the Wireless Telephone Organization, (WirelessTelephone.Org) -- since 1902, would create an uncertainty, and weakness within the U.S. communications, iPhone, and iPhone, CellPhone industry, and doubt in the minds of existing iPhone, and/or CellPhone Users."
• CLICK FOR MORE IN SECTION 3 BELOW.
CLICK FOR MORE USPTO 101 S90 STORY.
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•101• 106NBS-More02ChallengesUSPTO / "Defending the Source-Identifier Demonstrations, and ServiceMark creations from 1898 to 2011, is easy, it's about both History & Fees."• 102NBS-More02ChallengesUSPTO
"But let's not become to generous!" says Charles Portz, the WirelessTelephoneOrg's lead counsel. "We are confident our Trademark will be validated, and if it isn't -- we are prepared to defend our contentions in any forum." CLICK FOR MORE USPTO 101 S90 STORY / CLICK FOR MORE 1902 STORY

02. HeadLine 1902 - WIRELESS TELEPHONE Industrial School of Arts & Sciences , Murray, Kentucky, Now Murray State University. ®™© & USPTO, Washington, D.C.
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102WIRELESS TELEPHONE Industrial School of Arts & Sciences - 1902
Excerpts from: Smart Daaf Boys, Stubblefield's 1993 "All-in-One Radio/Television & Desk Top Almanac Encyclopedia-PatenTOfficeLogo108w.jpgDictionary. (456 Pages ) • ISBN No. 10883644-04-6Library of Congress Catalog Number 93-060451Volume IV, A Source Book for Comminications Executives & Researchers
Copyright 1993: By Telvision International Publishing (TVI Publishing)

nbstubblefieldPofM-108w.jpg102WIRELESS TELEPHONE Industrial School of Arts & Sciences - 1902
: - In January 1902, Stubblefield agreed to participate in the commercial exploitation of his device by Fennell's Philadelphia Group that purportedly included Westinghouse. Incorporation papers for the Wireless Telephone Company of America were filed in Prescott, Arizona, on May 22, 1902. Stubblefield was a director, but held no office. The Washington and Philadelphia demonstrations maintained the momentum needed to sell stock in the new company. A four page prospectus, extolling the investment opportunity in Wireless Telephone Company of America compared the Stubblefield device with Marconi's wireless telegraphy system by stating that both systems utilized "... for transmission what are termed Hertzian electrical wave currents ..." The technical details were not disclosed since the prospectus was designed to sell stock, and perhaps deliberately avoided specific evidence on the points of comparison or contrast. The use of steel rods thrust into the ground, the large circular coils and the copper antenna wires attached to the masts on the steamer Bartholdi and on rooftops indicate that Stubblefield's 1892, 1893 and 1902 systems were based upon Stubblefield's earth grounded induction-antenna principle, in which we now call, AM radio. Stubblefield insisted that a more "powerful" apparatus would "transmit" unlimited distances. The U.S. Navies ELF project in Clam Flats, Wisconsin is based on Stubblefield's basic induction-antenna device.
Wireless Telephone: 1898: Patent For Electrolyte Battery and Detector for Radio Signal (wireless telephone) Issued 600,457. {19/Gx}
wireless - (1) A British term for radio.
(2) Used in the United States, in the sense of (#1) above, when the word "radio" might be misinterpreted (as an example -- a "wireless record player"). {73/RS}
Section 19.
Wireless Telephony
- The early radiotelephones were powered by wet-cell, non-rechargeable batteries. The telephone at first also used electricity. Today's radio and television stations receive their current from power lines fed by huge dynamos, some powered by atomic fission. The increasing sophistication of power sources, (solar, cell) parallels the continued movement toward greater sophistication in electrical communication methods. {01/Gi}
Wireless Telephony and Stubblefield - Nathan B. Stubblefield's "Wireless Telephony" - ("Radio"): In addition to the following listings under "Wireless Telephony," as well as those listed above under "Wireless Signals," also see the section in this book, under: "Stubblefield, Nathan B" with the various terms, definitions, patents issued, demonstrations, historical facts, etc., on Nathan B. Stubblefield (The "Inventor" Of The "Wireless Telephony" -- The "Radio").
••• • Please See Section 15. Stubblefield and "Wireless Telephony" ("Radio").
••• • Also See Radio: Publications "Broadcast&endash;Industry Trade Resource/Reference Books" with a section on Nathan B. Stubblefield.
••• • Also See Radio: Publications "Hard&endash;Cover Books" with a section on Nathan B. Stubblefield.
••• • Also See Radio: Publications "Magazines" with a section on Nathan B. Stubblefield. {03/Di}
WIRELESS TELEPHONY and TELEGRAPH
••• (1) RADIO FREQUENCY (ra-di--o-fre-quen-cy), n. (a). the frequency of the transmitting waves of a given radio message or broadcast. (b). a frequency within the range of radio transmission, i.e. from about 15,000 MC to 10 MC (MegaCycles) per second. [Note: A MegaCycle means, "one million cycles" -- so 15,000 MC is equal to 15,000 x 1,000,000, which is 15,000,000,000 cycles per second (15 billion cycles per second); and 10 MC is equal to 10 x 1,000,000, which is 10,000,000 cycles per second (10 million cycles per second).]
••• (2) RADIO (ra-di-o), n. (a). wireless telegraphy: sparks or dot&endash;dashes broadcasted by radio. (b). telephony: speeches or music broadcasted by radio. (c). an apparatus for receiving radio broadcasts. (d). a message transmitted by radio.
••• (3) BROADCAST (broad-cast), v. To send (messages, speeches, music, sounds) by radio. {19/Gx}
Wireless Telephony: 1860: Murray, Kentucky: Nathan B. Stubblefield - Nathan B. Stubblefield, "The Inventor Of Radio" (Wireless Telephony) was born in Murray, Kentucky in 1860. Stubblefield died in Murray in 1928, where he is buried. {19/Gx}
Wireless Telephony: 1885: First World's Private Wireless (Voice) Transmission-
Demonstration.
In 1885, Nathan B. Stubblefield, "The Inventor of Wireless Telephony" held his First Demonstration, [which was the World's First Private Demonstration of wireless (voice) transmission on land]. Stubblefield, from Murray, Kentucky: Patented his invention in 1898 and also in 1908. {19/Gx}
Wireless Telephony: 1885: Stubblefield demonstration to his friend, Duncan Holt, the transmission of voice without wires. Holt stated, "One Sunday that year [1885] Stubblefield invited Holt and his wife out to his home, where the west boundary of Murray State College now is. That afternoon he said to Holt, "Duncan, I've done it. I've been able to talk without wires -- all of 200 yards -- and it'll work everywhere!" Stubblefield had a little "experimental station" he called it, 200 yards away from the house, and he said he could talk from there and it could be heard at the house, or vise&endash;versa -- and without wires! At that time, Holt said, "the Scientific American had never mentioned the possi bility in suggestion or otherwise that speech or intelligent communication could be transmitted with out wires. Stubblefield was the first to entertain the idea. "{19/Gx}
Wireless Telephony: 1892: First World's Public Radio Demonstration - In 1892, the World's First Public Radio Demonstration -- [World's First Public Demonstration of wireless (voice) transmission on land] was held in Murray, Kentucky.
••• In the winter of 1892, Nathan B. Stubblefield made a tremendous ad vance in his "wireless telephone" demonstrations, which would make wireless practi cal over distances far greater than those from his experimental home to the garden, dis tances which would first encompass the earth and then reach far out into the universe and to uni verses beyond. It was Stubblefield's great invention of the "wireless telephone" that helped him discover the basic principals and laws of Amplitude Modulation, (AM Radio).
••• To advance his low&endash;frequency induction system to a space system, he built an aerial -- an antenna which he connected to one side of the carbon mouth piece of a telephone: (to send a spark wave; Hertz had merely used a horizontal rod ending in a plate.) The aerial was copper wire wrapped around a cylinder, or in some cases made into a loop, that was attached to the top of a pole (later he used longer aerials strung along the top of his family home). He con nected the other side of the carbon coil located inside of the mouthpiece to his electrolyte water batteries and crystal, stacked and positioned inside his secret "black box." Ground wires from the "black box," then lead to the metal stakes driven into the earth. The re ceiver also got an aerial and ground. {19/Gx}
WIRELESS TELEPHONY: 1892: Nathan B. Stubblefield - In January, 1892, Nathan B. Stubblefield demonstrated this "WIRELESS TELEPHONY" system in Murray, Kentucky before several hundred on lookers. A total of $758.00 was borrowed from friends and relative to perform this demonstration. During the same year, Stubblefield, again privately, demonstrated to Rainey T. Wells the ability of his apparatus to send and receive the human voice by wireless. After he had set up his props, the inventor talked into one box in rather low tones, and his words "Can you hear me?" Came out the other box "quite distinctly and clearly" as attested to by witnesses.
••• Dr. W. H. Mason, a Murray sur geon who claimed to be a per sonal friend and family physician for Nathan B. Stubblefield, declared that in the same year he wit nessed a private demonstration of the wireless tele phone. Dr. Mason recalled that on one occa sion, Nathan B. Stubblefield handed him a device "housed in what appeared to be a keg with a handle on it." The doctor then followed instructions to walk down the lane carrying the keg. He testified that from it he could hear distinctly "Nathan's voice and a French harp (harmonica)" which Nathan was sending. {19/Gx}
Wireless Telephony: 1895: Dit Dahs "dots & dashes"- Guglielmo Marconi - In the spring of 1895, what Nathan B. Stubblefield did with wireless voice transmission in 1885, Guglielmo Marconi did with dots and dashes. He discovered that he could send signals over distances far greater than those from his villa to the garden -- dis tances which would travel more than a mile It was Marconi's great basic in vention of signal induction -- if, indeed, it was his. Like Stubblefield, he built an aerial -- an antenna which he connected to one side of the spark gap. (Hertz had merely used a horizontal rod ending in a plate.) The aerial was a metal cylinder atop a pole. He con nected the other side of the spark gap to a ground -- at first, a copper plate ly ing in the ground. The re ceiver also got an aerial and ground. {19/Gx}
Wireless Telephony: 1998: electrolyte water battery "Stubblefield, Nathan B" - 1898
The patent on the Stubblefield electrolyte water battery, number 600,457, was the device that provided the energy to produce the continual subcarrier hum during Stubblefield's voice transmission when it was connected to his "black box" that contained the electrolytic crystals that acted as detectors and modulators. The portable receiver contained the necessary detector to receive the voice broadcast. Stubblefield advertised that by slightly modifying the telephone coil, one could transmit through the ground for many miles -- the battery acting as a relay. {19/Gx}
Wireless Telephony: 1898: ground cell (Stubblefield, Nathan B.) - 1898: Stubblefield's Electrolyte Water Battery. The patent on the Stubblefield bat tery, number 600,457, declares in the specification forming part of the letters of patent that the electrical battery has for its object: to provide a novel and practical battery for generating electrical currents of suf ficient forms for practical uses, and also pro viding means for generating not only a constant pri mary current but also an induced momentary sec ondary current.
••• This electrical battery is the "ground cell" or "earth cell" frequently referred to by Stubblefield in many of his writings and interviews. Stubblefield so named the de vice because when he first began his experimentation with it, he would place the device that he had constructed in the moist earth of his farm. Then, when electrical cur rents began to flow from the device, he assumed that the engine he had constructed was tapping the "natural elec tricity" of the earth. Note, for example, how he describes the action of his electrical battery: This cell de rived sufficient electrical energy from the ground in the vicinity of the spot where it was buried to run a small motor continuously for two months and six days without any attention whatever. Indeed, the electrical cur rent was powerful enough to run a clock and several small pieces of machinery and to ring a large gong. By adding a modified carbon microphone to the batteries, it creation wireless voice transmission. {19/Gx} • CLICK FOR MORE USPTO 102 S90 STORY / CLICK FOR MORE 1902 STORY
///

2006/ImagesStub/nbsPayToPlayTruck108p.jpg03. 102-1902-Wireless Telephony Demonstration-Washington, D.C:
The First World's Ship to Shore Radio Wireless (Voice) Broadcast - January, 1902: In 1902, the "Worlds First Ship to Shore Radio Wireless (Voice) Broadcast" took place. On March 20, 1902, Stubblefield set up a demonstration on the Potomac River in Washington, D.C.
•••  Among the Stubblefield papers is a record on the printed receipt of John Cumberland and Sons, Boat Builders, for the hire of the steamer Bartholdi, for a four hour test, costing $25. On this re ceipt Nathan Stubblefield has written: "First Marine Wireless Telephone Demonstration in the world before the public by Nathan B. Stubblefield, March 20, 1902."
••• One set of telephone equipment was carried on board the steamer, and a sister unit kept on the shore. The Bartholdi was lo cated midstream just below Georgetown University. In a picture made of the steamer showing persons aboard, the university buildings are plainly seen in the background. The wires from the telephone were dropped into the water at the stern of the boat. The sounds of a harmonica played on shore were distinctly heard on the three receivers at tached to the apparatus on the steamer, and singing, the sound of the human voice counting numerals, and ordi nary conversation were audible. {19/Gx}
Philadelphia Demonstration (Nathan B. Stubblefield) - 1902:
Wireless Telephony: 1902: Belmont Mansion. Philadelphia Demonstration. On May 30, 1902, just a little over two months af ter this Washington demonstration, Stubblefield gave demonstrations of his wireless telephone in Philadelphia at the Belmont mansion. Again the witnesses were newspapermen and "a few invited guests, that included Tesla, Westinghouse and Collins."
••• The paper re ported that all who placed the receiver to their ears went away con vinced of the efficacy of the wireless phone. A pic ture in the Stubblefield papers shows the Decoration Day gathering assembled one mile distant from the instal lation in the second story of the Belmont man sion. The ground wire attached to the receiver is shown in the fore ground of the picture. (Bartholdi) Several of the celebrities present are named. Professor Edwin J. Houston, author of many technical works, of Franklin Institute attended the Philadelphia demonstrations. His picture was taken at this park demonstration. {19/Gx} CLICK FOR MORE 102-S90 STORY / CLICK FOR MORE 1902 STORY

Wireless Telephony: 1902: Courthouse Square, Radio Demonstration (Nathan B. Stubblefield) - 1902: January 1. On this day, Stubblefield again demonstrated his radio as he did in 1892, but this time, with 5 listening stations and before a crowd of about a thousand persons in the courthouse square at Murray. Newspaper reported that he established five "listening" stations in various parts of town, the furthest [sic] six blocks distant from the transmitter. Then Mr. Stubblefield's son took his place at the transmitter and talked in a tone of voice such as is ordinarily used in telephoning. Bernard whispered, whistled, and played a large harmonica. Simultaneously everyone on the re ceivers heard him with remarkable distinctness. And at that moment, Stubblefield became a prophet with honor in his own country. {19/Gx}
Wireless Telephony: 1906: continuous radio wave - 1906: Reginald Fessenden. Immediately after Stubblefield's 1902 demonstrations in Washington, Reginald Fessenden hit upon the idea that a voice carried on a low-frequency wave could be modulated to be carried upon a high frequency continuous radio wave. On Christmas Eve 1906, startled wireless operators heard Fessenden's voice as far away as the East Indies, using his noisy 100,000 volt alternating generator to carry voice. {19/Gx}
Wireless Telephony: 1906: Voice added to Continuous Radio wave: Fessenden - Sometime between 1901 and 1906, Reginald Fessenden hit upon the idea that a voice could be modulated to be carried upon a continuous radio wave. On Christmas Eve 1906, startled wireless operators heard Fessenden's voice as far away as the East Indies, using his noisy alternating generator to carry voice. {19/Gx}
PatenTOfficeLogo108w.jpgWireless Telephony: 1908: Radio Patent #887,357 - 1908: Stubblefield's radio, "Wireless Telephony, received a patent, number 887,357. His patent describes his radio system as devices that would transmit and receive broadcast in any moving vehicle, either from ship to shore, horseless carriages, and locomotive. Today of course, any moving vehicle would include, airplanes, rockets, cellular telephones, automobiles and even satellites. {19/Gx}
Wireless Telephony: 1911: De Forest, Lee "radio transmission, voiceless" - Lee De Forest's invention of the vacuum tube provided the basis for modern radio transmission in 1911. The original De Forest "triode tube" or audion did not transmit voice. {19/Gx}
The Kingsbury Commitment 1913 / The Kingsbury Commitment of 1913 formalized AT&T's monopoly. The Bell System and Independent telephone companies reduced competition out of concern for government intervention. The government had been increasingly worried that AT&T and the other Bell Companies were monopolizing the industry.
••• Under Theodore N. Vail from 1907 AT&T had bought Bell-associated companies and organized them into new hierarchies. AT&T had also acquired many of the independents, and bought control of Western Union, giving it a monopolistic position in both telephone and telegraph communication. A key strategy was to refuse to connect its long distance network -- technologically, by far the finest and most extensive in the land -- with local independent carriers. Without the prospect of long distance services, the market position of many independents became untenable. Vail stated that there should be "one policy, one system [AT&T's] and universal service, no collection of separate companies could give the public the service that [the] Bell... system could give."
••• AT&T's strategies prompted complaints and attracted the attention of the Justice Department. Faced with a government investigation for antitrust violations, AT&T entered into negotiations. CLICK FOR MORE BYLINES.
Wireless Telephony: 1913: amplifier - 1913: Lee De Forest perfected his Audion as an amplifier, and in 1913 sold rights to it as a tele phonic relay to a lawyer named Meyers for $50,000. Meyers turned out to be a front for none other than the American Telephone and Telegraph Company. AT&T had been prepared to pay half a million if it had to. It wasn't until the end of 1913 that De Forest discov ered that the Audion could be used for voice transmis sion. Now the Audion bulb -- the vacuum tube -- was a detector, an am plifier, and a means of transmission. But the outbreak of World War I caused all further re search to be hidden by military se crecy. {19/Gx}
Wireless: 1913: Alexandersen Radio Receiver - 1913.
Radio receiver (tuner), Alexandersen.{19/Gx}
Wireless Telephony: 1918: Alexanderson's alternator: Congress Bill Legislation - In 1918, two bills were introduced in Congress that were indirectly designed to bring wireless under control and to retain American control over Alexanderson's alternator.
••• Please See Congress Bills on Wireless Telephony. {19/Gx}
Wireless Telephony: 1918: The name Radio is first used"RCA" (Radio Corporation of America) - In 1918, soon after the war, AT&T, Westinghouse, and General Electric pooled their patent rights and formed RCA (Radio Corporation of America): which then bought out the American Marconi Company. Broadcasting started from Westinghouse's experimental station, KDKA, in Pittsburgh. {19/Gx}
Wireless: 1918: Alexanderson Alternator: Congress Bill Legislation on Wireless Telephony - In 1918, two bills were introduced in Congress that were indirectly designed to bring wireless under control and to retain American control over Alexanderson's alternator.
••• Please See Congress Bills on Wireless Telephony. {19/Gx}
Wireless: 1920: broadcast transmitter: Fessenden/Poulson -1903: HF (sound) broadcast transmitter, Fessenden/Poulson.Patent Expires June 1920. {19/Gx
Wireless: 1929: Armstrong - FM broadcast transmission path - 1929: Armstrong, FM broadcast transmission path. {19/Gx}
Wireless Telephony: 1930-42: World War II: Radio/Television broadcasts - During this period, television experimentation continued, and by 1930, a handful of experimental stations were on the air. Both the BBC and RCA began broadcasting on a regular schedule in 1936, but World War II interrupted progress. Radio was the undisputed entertainment king until after the war, when television came into its own, broadcasting a mix of live drama, variety, and news programing. {19/Gx}
///

04 • 102The Kingsbury Commitment 1913 / The Kingsbury Commitment of 1913 formalized AT&T's monopoly. The Bell System and Independent telephone companies reduced competition out of concern for government intervention. The government had been increasingly worried that AT&T and the other Bell Companies were monopolizing the industry.
••• Under Theodore N. Vail from 1907 AT&T had bought Bell-associated companies and organized them into new hierarchies. AT&T had also acquired many of the independents, and bought control of Western Union, giving it a monopolistic position in both telephone and telegraph communication. A key strategy was to refuse to connect its long distance network -- technologically, by far the finest and most extensive in the land -- with local independent carriers. Without the prospect of long distance services, the market position of many independents became untenable. Vail stated that there should be "one policy, one system [AT&T's] and universal service, no collection of separate companies could give the public the service that [the] Bell... system could give."
••• AT&T's strategies prompted complaints and attracted the attention of the Justice Department. Faced with a government investigation for antitrust violations, AT&T entered into negotiations.
••• In the Kingsbury Commitment, actually a letter from AT&T Vice President Nathan Kingsbury of December 19, AT&T agreed with the Attorney General to divest itself of Western Union, to provide long distance services to independent exchanges under certain conditions and to refrain from acquisitions if the Interstate Commerce Commission objected.
••• The Commitment did not settle all the differences between independents and Bell companies and averted the federal takeover many had expected. However the Commitment played into AT&T's hands - the company was allowed to buy market-share, as long as it sold an equal number of phones. Critically, while with the Kingsbury Commitment, AT&T agreed to connect its long distance service to independent local carriers, it did not agree to interconnect its local services with other local providers. Nor did AT&T agree to any interconnection with independent long distance carriers.
••• Consequently, AT&T was able to consolidate its control over both the most profitable urban markets and long distance traffic. Between 1921 and 1934, the ICC approved 271 of the 274 purchase requests of AT&T.
••• The entire network was nationalized during World War I from June 1918 to July 1919. Following re-privatization, AT&T resumed its near-monopoly position. In 1934, the government acted to set AT&T up as a regulated monopoly under the jurisdiction of the Federal Communications Commission. This was maintained until AT&T's divestiture in 1984. CLICK FOR MORE 102-S90 STORY
///
ByLines - ATT / 102AT&T-1992: Wireless-Data Alliances unveiled by AT&T - On Monday, November 16, 1992, American Telephone & Telegraph Co. announced alliances in the U.S. and Japan, leapfrogging computer makers in the race to deliver wireless data services and equipment to millions of customers. According to analysts and individuals familiar with AT&Ts plans; the moves -- including an agreement by three of Japan's leading consumer electronics manufactures, to back its technology -- should hasten development of the market. These three Japanese titans include, Matsushita Electric Industrial Co., NEC Corp., and Toshiba Corp. The new communicators will help create an industry that is expected to outpace the fast&endash;growing cellular phone market and even rival the personal computer business some day.
••• The tiny communicators will use a pen instead of a keyboard and allow consumers to scribble and send each other messages, fetch files, check a Rolodex and even make a telephone call, if their unit includes a phone.
••• AT&T has bet billions on this wireless future, including tens of millions of dollars developing an electronic chip, called Hobbit, that will work with the new equipment. It has also provided millions of dollars in seed money for several companies that are supplying the new market. And to help capture traffic from such machines, AT&T recently announced a $3.73 billion investment in McCaw Cellular Communications Inc., a national provider of phone service.
••• AT&T is trying to control wireless from soup to nuts - as they have hooked up with the largest U.S. cellular carrier, McCaw, and they even want to control the brains in these communications sets. {03/Di} CLICK FOR MORE 102-S90 STORY / CLICK FOR MORE 1902 STORY

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